Chinese folk religion is occasionally observed as a constituent a part of Chinese classic religion, but more typically, the two are regarded as synonymous. This article is a stub. They (txiv neeb) regard Siv Yis as their archetype and identify as him when they are imbued by the gods. [388]:153, The third phase started in the 18th century when Parsi merchants sailed from Mumbai to Macau, Hong Kong and Guangzhou. [378]:135 In the last decades there has been a growth of modern, transnational forms of Hinduism in China: Yogic ("Yoga" is rendered as 瑜伽 Yújiā, literally the "Jade Maiden"), Tantric,[86]:3 and Krishnaite groups (the Bhagavad Gita has been recently translated and published in China) have appeared in many urban centres including Beijing, Shanghai, Chengdu, Shenzhen, Wuhan and Harbin. Eventually he became the goddess Guanyin, the quintessential personification of compassion and one of the most widespread deities of folk religion. Data from the China Family Panel Studies (CFPS) 2012. [71]:821–822 China's earliest known Buddhist temple, the White Horse Temple, was established outside the walls of the capital Luoyang during Emperor Ming's reign. The government condemned religious organisations, labeling them as superstitious. The term Tao means "way", "path" or "principle", and may also be found in Chinese philosophies and religions other than Taoism, including Confucian thought. While Buddhism contributed new deities to folk religion, it in turn adopted popular deities into its own pantheon, albeit usually only in a subservient position. [378]:128–129 In the Sui (581–618) and later Tang dynasty (618–907), Hindu texts translated into Chinese included the Śulvasūtra, the Śulvaśāstra and the Prescriptions of Brahmin Rishis. The story Mulian Rescues His Mother, for instance, is a parable dated back to the 3rd century, which adapts an originally Buddhist fable to show Confucian values of filial piety. [353] The Orthodox Church, which has believers among the Russian minority and some Chinese in the far northeast and far northwest, is officially recognised in Heilongjiang. China, home to the largest folk religion population, is expected to have 14% of the world’s population in 2050, down from 20% in 2010. Like the wu, the fashi identify with their deity, but while the wu embody wild forces, vernacular ritual masters represent order like the Taoists. [264] Recent scholarship has coined the category of "secret sects" (祕密教門 mìmì jiàomén) to distinguish positively-viewed peasant secret societies of the Yuan, Ming and Qing dynasties, from the negatively-viewed secret societies of the early republic which were regarded as anti-revolutionary forces.[264]. 民俗宗教 mínsú zōngjiào), or "Chinese ethnic religion" (i.e. The gods (shen Chinese: 神; "growth", "beings that give birth" ) are interwoven energies or principles that generate phenomena which reveal or reproduce the way of Heaven, that is to say the order (li) of the Greatnine(Tian). [42] Confucius amended and recodified the classical books inherited from the Xia-Shang-Zhou dynasties, and composed the Spring and Autumn Annals. The Abrahamic religions that came from the Near East, for example, focus on a single omnipotent deity, whereas the folk religions of China attribute independent power to multiple deities, without attributing to the lofty Jade Emperor the omnipotence, omniscience, and omnipresence attributed to the Abrahamic supreme deity. Christianity has been practiced in Hong Kong since 1841. Each group lives in different areas of the country and has distinctive features which include different languages, scripts, religions, clothes, diet, festivals, habits, lifestyles and ideology. Zhang Lu died in 216 or 217, and between 215 and 219 the people of Hanzhong were gradually dispersed northwards, implanting Celestial Masters' Taoism in other parts of the empire. [368]:33 Also, Korean church buildings are stylistically very similar to South Korean churches, with big spires surmounted by red crosses. A thing or being is "spiritual"—the third sense of shen—when it inspires awe or wonder. During the efflorescence of Buddhism in the Southern and Northern dynasties, Fan Zhen wrote On the Extinction of the Soul (神灭论 Shénmièlùn) to criticise ideas of body-soul dualism, samsara and karma. Like many contemporaries, Confucius saw ritual practices as efficacious ways to access Tian, but he thought that the crucial knot was the state of meditation that participants enter prior to engage in the ritual acts. Old Martial Art Strengthens Social Cohesion in Chinese Rural Areas", "Heaven, Earth, Sovereign, Ancestors, Masters: Some Remarks on the Politico-Religious in China Today", "Cultural Dynamics in China: Today and in 2020", "Antagonistic Discourses on Shamanic Folklore in Modern China", "Shamanistic Studies in China: A Preliminary Survey of the Last Decade", "The growth of a Taiwanese Buddhist association in China: Soft power and institutional learning", "Research Review of Bai Esoteric Buddhist Azhali Religion Since the 20th Century", "Even as International Pressure Mounts, China Ramps up Religious Persecution", "China cracks down on religion, crosses burned at Christian churches, Xi Jinping photos installed - ABC News (Australian Broadcasting Corporation)", "Hong Kong Christians Draw New Scrutiny From Mainland", "Lord Krishna's popularity rising in Communist China", "Manichaean and (Nestorian) Christian Remains in Zayton (Quanzhou, South China)", "Map: These are the world's least religious countries", 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195188356.001.0001, "Carrying the Confucian Torch to the Masses: The Challenge of Structuring the Confucian Revival in the People's Republic of China", "Understanding Di and Tian: Deity and Heaven from Shang to Tang Dynasties", "Conceptualizations of "Popular Religion" in Recent Research in the People's Republic of China", "Confucius and the Mediums: Is There a "Popular Confucianism"? This line of thought would have influenced all Chinese individual and collective-political mystical theories and practices thereafter. Shen are considered yáng 阴, while gui are yīn 阴. Muslims who were descended from earlier immigrants began to assimilate by speaking Chinese dialects and by adopting Chinese names and culture, mixing with the Han Chinese. [368]:29–31 Yanbian Koreans' Christianity has a patriarchal character; Korean churches are usually led by men, in contrast to Chinese churches that most often have female leadership. They draw out the ten thousand things". The Classic of Poetry contains several catechistic poems in the Decade of Dang questioning the authority or existence of the God of Heaven. From earliest times, the Chinese tended to be all-embracing rather than to treat different religious traditions as separate and independent. [192][note 13] Tengri is the equivalent of Tian in Altaic shamanic religions. [318] This society has engaged in missionary efforts in China partially aided by the good relationship it has interlaced with the Chinese government. the priests, who are experts of Taoist doctrines and rites, and to their closest disciples) might be 12 million (~1%). Also Mormonism (摩爾門教 Mó'ěrménjiào) has a tiny presence. According to Law (2005), in his study about the relationship between the revival of folk religion and the reconstruction of patriarchal civilisation: Yang defined it as an "embedded capitalism", which preserves local identity and autonomy, and an "ethical capitalism" in which the drive for individual accumulation of money is tempered by religious and kinship ethics of generosity that foster the sharing and investment of wealth in the construction of civil society. Fundamental elements of a theology and spiritual explanation for the nature of the universe harken back to this period and were further elaborated in the Axial Age. [270], Broadly speaking, however, scholars agree that Confucianism may be also defined as an ethico-political system, developed from the teachings of the philosopher Confucius (551–479 BCE). The proliferation of foreign religions in the Tang, especially Buddhist sects, entailed that each of them conceived their own ideal "Heaven". Zhi is the ability to see what is right and what is wrong, in the behaviour exhibited by others. Hinduism (印度教 Yìndùjiào) entered China around the same time as Buddhism, generally imported by Indian merchants, from different routes. [313], The first Buddhist temple in Yunnan province, the Wabajie Temple in Xishuangbanna, was erected in 615. From the central sulde there are strings that hold tied light blue pieces of cloth with a few white ones. [253] They generally emerged from the common religion but are separate from the lineage cults of ancestors and progenitors, as well as from the communal worship of deities of village temples, neighbourhood, corporation, or national temples. The Boxers' action was aimed at sabotaging or outrightly destroying these infrastructures. [322], What distinguishes the bimo and the shamans is the way through which they acquire their authority. By the seventh century, this new view of the afterlife had already gained some acceptance, and in the following centuries new texts and liturgies for its propagation and ritual negotiation emerged. [272] Joël Thoraval finds that Confucianism expresses on a popular level in the widespread worship of five cosmological entities: Heaven and Earth (Di 地), the sovereign or the government (jūn 君), ancestors (qīn 親) and masters (shī 師). [84] During the anti-foreign and anti-Christian Boxer Uprising of 1900, thousands of Chinese Christians and foreign missionaries were killed, but in the aftermath of the retaliatory invasion, numbers of reform-minded Chinese turned to Christianity. [378]:136–137 Remains of Hindu temples have also been discovered in Xinjiang, and they are of an earlier date than those in southeast China. This page was last edited on 18 December 2020, at 16:38. New York: Columbia University Press, 2001. [362], Protestants in the early 21st century, including both official and unofficial churches, had between 25 and 35 million adherents. Folk religious movements of salvation constitute 2–3% to 13% of the population, while many in the intellectual class adhere to Confucianism as a religious identity. [97] In the early 2000s, the Chinese government became open especially to traditional religions such as Mahayana Buddhism, Taoism and folk religion, emphasising the role of religion in building a "Harmonious Society" (hexie shehui),[98] a Confucian idea. It was in this period that religious focus shifted to the Earth (地 Dì), regarded as representative of Heaven's (celestial pole's) power. The performance of rites (礼 lǐ) is the key characteristic of common Chinese religion, which scholars see as going back to Neolithic times. [225] Mayfair Yang (2007) studied how rituals and temples interweave to form networks of grassroots socio-economic capital for the welfare of local communities, fostering the circulation of wealth and its investment in the "sacred capital" of temples, gods and ancestors. In the same years, about 40 million Chinese said they believed in Jesus Christ or had attended Christian meetings, but did not identify themselves with the Christian religion. In the culmination of a series of atheistic and anti-religious campaigns already underway since the late 19th century, the Cultural Revolution against old habits, ideas, customs and culture, lasting from 1966 to 1976, destroyed or forced them underground. The study analysed the proportion of believers that were at the same time members of the local section of the Communist Party of China, finding that it was exceptionally high among the Taoists, while the lowest proportion was found among the Protestants. [153], Folk religious movements of salvation have historically been more successful in the central plains and in the northeastern provinces than in southern China, and central-northern popular religion shares characteristics of some of the sects, such as the great importance given to mother goddess worship and shamanism,[154] as well as their scriptural transmission. These may be deities of the natural environment or ancestral principles of human groups, concepts of civility, culture heroes, many of whom feature in Chinese mythology and history. Confucianism was initiated by Confucius, developed by Mencius (~372–289 BCE) and inherited by later generations, undergoing constant transformations and restructuring since its establishment, but preserving the principles of humaneness and righteousness at its core. Identification. Some of the most prominent Chinese universities began as religious institutions. "Folk Religion, China They did not proselytise among Chinese, and from this period there are only two known fragments of Zoroastrian literature, both in Sogdian language. Confucianism holds one in contempt when he fails to uphold the cardinal moral values of ren and yi. Pre-Buddhist ideas distinguished between various paradisiacal realms and a vaguely defined underworld called the Yellow Springs, but there seems to have been no clear link between one's posthumous fate and one's conduct while living. Sacrifices to the aobaoes are made offering slaughtered animals, joss sticks, and libations. A practice developed in the Chinese folk religion of post-Maoist China, that started in the 1990s from the Confucian temples managed by the Kong kin (the lineage of the descendants of Confucius himself), is the representation of ancestors in ancestral shrines no longer just through tablets with their names, but through statues. [309] In the 2000s and 2010s, the influence of Chinese Buddhism has been expressed through the construction of large-scale statues, pagodas and temples, including the Great Buddha of the Central Plains, the second highest statue in the world. Many temples in China also claim to preserve relics of the original Gautama Buddha. Buddhism, Christianity, Islam, Taoism…religion in Beijing is as diverse as its architecture; temples, churches, mosques and synagogues are all present. At the same time, popular or folk religion in China continues to exist and exert an influence apart from the formal traditions. A few years later, an Islamic army called the Kansu Braves, led by the general Dong Fuxiang, fought for the Qing dynasty against the foreigners during the Boxer Rebellion. [311] The cult of Genghis is also shared by the Han, claiming his spirit as the founding principle of the Yuan dynasty.[340]:23. [343]:14, The Yao people, who reside in Guangxi and Hunan and surrounding provinces, follow a folk religion that is deeply integrated with Taoism since the 13th century, so much that it is frequently defined as "Yao Taoism". It spread significantly much later, with Tibetan influence in the west, and with the Mongols and Manchus in the north, especially under the dynasties which they established in China, the Yuan and the Qing dynasty.[80]. On the other hand, Tibetan Buddhism is the dominant religion in Tibet, and significantly present in other westernmost provinces where ethnic Tibetans constitute a significant part of the population, and has a strong influence in Inner Mongolia in the north. [252], China has a long history of sectarian traditions, called "salvationist religions" (救度宗教 jiùdù zōngjiào) by some scholars, which are characterised by a concern for salvation (moral fulfillment) of the person and the society, having a soteriological and eschatological character. [156], Goossaert talks of this distinction, although recognising it as an oversimplification, between a "Taoist south" and a "village-religion/Confucian centre-north",[149]:47 with the northern context also characterised by important orders of "folk Taoist" ritual masters, one order being that of the 阴阳生}} yīnyángshēng,[149]:86[157] and sectarian traditions,[149]:92 and also by a low influence of Buddhism and official Taoism.[149]:90. [303] According to Chirita (2014), Confucianism itself, with its emphasis on hierarchy and ancestral rituals, derived from the shamanic discourse of the Shang dynasty (~1600 BCE–1046 BCE). It is centred on the worship of the tngri (gods) and the highest Tenger (Heaven, God of Heaven, God) or Qormusta Tengri. Catholics were not more than 10 million. Encyclopedias almanacs transcripts and maps. This hierarchy proceeds up to the gods of the cosmos, the Earth and Heaven itself. Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography. The pace of missionary activity increased considerably after the First Opium War in 1842. The royal ancestors were called di (帝), "deities", and the utmost progenitor was Shangdi (上帝 "Highest Deity"). [351], Since the 1980s and the 1990s there has been a revival of Zhuang folk religion, which has followed two directions. [319] Soka Gakkai members in China are organised in the form of the house church, as they "meet quietly in small groups in the homes of other members", with little interference from the government. Folk Religion The folk religious traditions of blacks in the United States have roots in a number of sources, but it is their African origins that have left the most indelible and distinctive cultural imprint. They are shamans who acquire their position through years of training with a teacher. The Tibetans contributed with the translation into Chinese of the Pāṇinisūtra and the Rāmāyaṇa. Several folk religion temples in Huochakou village were demolished. [336] Deities (enduri) enliven every aspect of nature, and the worship of these gods is believed to bring favour, health and prosperity. Among the ancient Chinese, the God of the Zhou dynasty appeared to have been an ancestor of the ruling house. [352], Christianity (基督教 Jīdūjiào, "religion of Christ") in China comprises Protestantism (基督教新教 Jīdūjiào xīnjiào, "New-Christianity"), Roman Catholicism (天主教 Tiānzhǔjiào, "religion of the Lord of Heaven"), and a small number of Orthodox Christians (正教 Zhèngjiào). [253], Many redemptive religions of the 20th and 21st century aspire to embody and reform Chinese tradition in the face of Western modernism and materialism. Folk religion’s indigenous or native beliefs are held all over the world, particularly in parts of South America, Africa, China, and Southeast Asia. Manchu folk religion is the ethnic religion practised by most of the Manchu people, the major of the Tungusic peoples, in China. This is a difficult question. [5]:127 Based on Gnostic teachings and able to adapt to different cultural contexts, the Manichaean religion spread rapidly both westward to the Roman Empire and eastward to China. [372], The introduction of Islam (伊斯兰教 Yīsīlánjiào or 回教 Huíjiào) in China is traditionally dated back to a diplomatic mission in 651, eighteen years after Muhammad's death, led by Sa'd ibn Abi Waqqas. [185], Tian 天 ("Heaven" or "Sky") is the idea of absolute principle or God manifesting as the northern culmen and starry vault of the skies in Chinese common religion and philosophy. Reported in, sfnp error: multiple targets (2×): CITEREFYang2007 (, sfnp error: multiple targets (2×): CITEREFChau2005 (. The idea of the incarnation of God was not new, as already the Shang royal lineage regarded themselves as divine. Facts about Chinese Religion 2: the belief systems in China. [382] Small Manichaean communities are still active in modern China. Early Taoist movements developed their own institution in contrast to shamanism, but absorbing fundamental shamanic elements. Liang Shuming, a philosopher of the May Fourth Movement, wrote that Confucianism "functioned as a religion without actually being one". [89] The 1928 "Standards for retaining or abolishing gods and shrines" formally abolished all cults of gods with the exception of human heroes such as Yu the Great, Guan Yu and Confucius. Buddhism's success in China can be measured directly by its impact on this religion of the people. [216] Most academics in China use the term "religion" (zongjiao) to include formal institutions, specific beliefs, a clergy, and sacred texts, while Western scholars tend to use the term more loosely. [317]:42, Nichiren Buddhism, a denomination of the Buddhist religion that was founded in Japan in the 13th century, has been spreading in China in the 21st century in the form of the Soka Gakkai (in Chinese: 创价学会 Chuàngjià xuéhuì). 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