He was driven by conviction to bring all the Indian states ruled by local rulers into the fold of British administration. ….Stanley Wolpert . The rebellion began on 10 May 1857 in the form of a mutiny of sepoys of the Company's army in the garrison town of Meerut, 40 mi (64 km) northeast of Delhi (now Old Delhi). Political causes: The Doctrine of Lapse which was introduced by the British stated that any kingdom of India which did not have its natural heir the kingdom would pass on to the hands of the British. It was the first organized revolt against British rule in India. Higher philosophies were the monopoly of the learned. 6 ABOUT THE NEW CARTRIDGE D) increased pressure on agricultural land View Answer / Hide Answer In fact, the Empire rested only their loyalty. 2.1 Superior British Army; 2.2 Limited Supplies and Lack of Modern Communication; 3 Political Reasons for the Failure of 1857 Revolt. It should be rational, reasonable, necessary and practical. Hundreds and thousands of people had died during the years of this uprising. The British conquest of India was followed by Western influences on the Indian society. The great messages of religion lay hidden in scriptures. The revolt of 1857 suffered from a weak leadership. The events of 1857 were unique both in terms of historical precedence and in terms of the socio-political sphere as far as India was concerned. Firstly, the British Generals and army officers did not know to behave well with the sepoys. The British imperialism over India led to the British imperialism over China. They were ready to avail of any opportunity against the English. The most important cause of popular discontent was the British policy of economically exploiting India. To John William Kaye, the introduction of the railways and telegraph was also a vital cause of the Mutiny. Rise of Organized Movement 1.1 Lack of Planning and Co-ordination; 1.2 Weak Leadership of the 1857 Mutiny; 2 Military Causes of Failure of 1857 Revolt. The loyal subjects of the deposed Nawab of Oudh became rebellious against their new rulers. Nature of the Revolt of 1857 ‘Sepoy Mutiny’ to some British historians—“a wholly unpatriotic and selfish Sepoy Mutiny with no native leadership and no popular support”, said Sir John Seeley. The Causes of the War. Jallianwala Baug Massacre The reason for British rule over India and China was because they wanted greater access to raw, What were the Causes and Consequences of the War of Independence (1857) During the period between 1820 and 1856 East India Company acting on the behalf of the British government had been actively maintaining a number of reforms and policies in India. The slaves shipped here came with a militant spirit after being harbored amongst the torturous vessels. Unpopular revenue settlement The orthodox thought that by the rapid spread of English education, the fabrics of the traditional Indian society should break. The immediate cause of the Revolt of 1857 was the incident of the greased cartridge. Introduced by Lord Dalhousie. Privacy Policy Causes. 3.1 Lack of Societal Alternative PROF. ANSHUMAN SINGH The revolt did not spread to all the parts of India instead it was confined to the Northern and Central India. The Revolt of 1857, commonly called as the Sepoy Revolt, was the culmination of the manifold grievances that Indians had against the East India Company’s rule. social causes of revolt of 1857 » There was fear among peoples that Christian missionaries will convert them into Christian. The issue of greased cartridges and military grievances has been over-emphasized, as the factor for the Revolt of 1857. It is said that some of the English army officers publicly preached Christianity among their subordinate sepoys. In addition, different fractions of people wanted to improve India in different ways. To the orthodox, he condemned in strong terms. They were unemployed. By that time, the secret agents of Rani Lakshmi Bai and Nana Saheb were busy among the angry sepoys to foment trouble. Vellore Mutiny ­– The Vellore Mutiny took place even before the revolt of 1857(50 years before). There African slaves were introduced into the Natchez plantation system in the early 1700s by the French colonists where the first major profitable crop that thrived from African slave labor in Natchez was tobacco products. causes of revolt of 1857 1. Thus, for the British the Revolt of 1857 was an important incident. There was discrimination not only in the lower level, it prevailed in every level of the economy. A powerful and popular revolt broke out in Northern and Central India in 1857. It made the sepoys furious. The West appeared to him as the home of a material civilization. Almost from the beginning of the British rule, the Christian missionaries tried to preach Christianity among the people. In times of femine and other calamities, the missionaries helped the helpless with the food or shelters. Yes, a rifle led to the need for a revolt! In 1902, at the age of 39, Vivekananda died. Their arrogant and insolent manners, rough languages and contempous behavior displeased the sepoys. The sepoys discovered a meaning behind the whole affair. The Indian public which does not like sudden changes was applied with the new laws and customs which were anathema to the … Content Guidelines That led to much discontent. The English educated young people came under modern influences and began to criticize the superstitions in their own society. REVOLT OF 1857 Causes of the revolt of 1857 These are broadly categorized into four parts: Political causes: LORD DALHOUSIE: A. Doctrine of lapse. The British wanted to destroy their religions through the greased cartridge. During the administration of Dalhousie, nearly 20 thousand lands–holders of the Deccan lost their lands. Vivekananda visited the West again in 1899. They were ordered not to do so. He wanted to make the Hindu modern. With the extension of the British Empire, they got opportunity to move all over the country. He said: “I shall go to the Mosque of a Mohammedian; I shall enter the Christian’s Church and kneel before the Crucifix; I shall enter the Buddhistic temple, where I shall take refuge in Buddha and his law. The whites also started interfering in the religious and cultural affairs of Indians and … They purchased Indian products and the raw materials at chipest rate and sold the British goods at dearest price. (i) The people felt that the British were destroying those socio-religious customs which were sacred to the Indians. Click here to get an answer to your question ️ what are the causes of the revolts of 1857 The inroads and encroachments of physical science were equally distasteful and disquieting. When Dalhousie left in 1856, there were only 45 thousands English soldiers in India. That kind of suspicion made the Indian army officers extremely unhappy. For this, they formulated many policies, political, economical and religious. The East India Company had the unusual distinction of ruling an entire country, The Natchez District where a tribe of Indians were housed as slaves was the first Mississippi region where plantations were established. They established schools at many places. They wanted changes and reforms. Such works also shocked the Indian conservatism. Thus, from the above discussion, we can say that the main causes of the Revolt of 1857 were due to various policies introduced by the British, the rapid spread of English education, imposing of heavy duties. So what was the immediate cause of the Revolt of 1857? Thus British government passed Government of India Act 1858 on August 2, 1858, according to which the power that the company enjoyed was snatched and a direct rule was established. It was the Revolt of 1857 that brought to the military defects of the East India Company, which were at once eradicated. Lack of Societal Alternative The direct effects of the Revolt of 1857 may be summed as follows: The Revolt of 1857 exposed the danger involved in allowing a commercial organisation to rule over a country. The unhappiness of the sepoys first surfaced in 1824 when the 47th Regiment at Barrackpur was ordered to go to Burma. The mysterious bread and the lotus moved from hand to hand as the symbol of revolution, carrying with them a call to rise. CAUSES OF REVOLT Economic Causes. Some other reasons that led to the formation of the revolt of 1857 were the economical discrimination. 2. What were the main causes of Revolt of 1857? Fourthly, Vivekananda preached spirituality in the light of modern enlightenment. Utilitarian saw the improvement in India through the maintaining good policies. Transfer of power from EIC to British Rule The Belur Math near Calcutta became the center of the Ramakrishna Mission. 3. James Lancaster was one of the few to return from the voyage. In 1857, there fell a centenary of the Battle of Plassey, fought in 1757. Because, democracy rested only self-respect and individuality of every man. Although it is exaggeration, it laid the seeds for Indian nationalism. Also, the import of British Machine to India, the exclusion of Indian sepoys at higher ranks in the military, etc. The policies and laws introduced by the Company created discontentment among the rulers, landlords, peasants, tribals and sepoys and all wanted an end to the colonial rule. It drew its strength from several elements of discontent against British rule. British expansionist policies, most of Raja’s, Nawab’s and zamindar’s, were either dispossessed or became subsidiary to the British 2. The policy of taxing lands belonging to temples and mosques lent further … It was also circulated that the flesh of pigs and cows was thrown into wells. It erupted on 10th July 1806 in Vellore, present-day Tamil Nadu, and lasted only for a day, but it was brutal and it was the first major mutiny by the Indian sepoys in the East India Company. As many historians had described that the revolt of 1857 was an awakening and some of them have even stated it as the ‘First War of Independence’ of India. It was a product of character and policies of the British in India. 1857 revolt was not only a outcome of religious interference but it was a last nail in the coffin. It was no more verbal demonstration; the arrogant self-assertion of the white man, which the Hindoo Priesthood could contradict or explaining away the railway cars, which travelled without horses or bullocks, at the rate thirty miles an hour, or the electric wires, which in few minutes carried a message across the breadth of a whole province ”. The rumor spread that the British rule were destined to last for a hundred years only , and as such , it should end in 1857. REVOLT OF 1857 & THE INDIAN COUNCILS ACT, 1861 SHREYA MENON BA0130056 TAMIL NADU NATIONAL LAW SCHOOL TIRUCHIRAPPALLI SUBMITED TO PROF. ANSHUMAN SINGH The Revolt of 1857, commonly called as the Sepoy Revolt, was the culmination of the manifold grievances that Indians had against the East India Company’s rule. It is also referred to as “First war of Independence”but ended up in a failure. The spiritual consciousness which he created in man, indirectly paved path for a democratic consciousness. for different reasons. BA0130056 It is my purpose to discover why this was. Thus he advocated the value of a wider understanding of different religions. The abolition of the Sati system led some people to complain that the Government had no right to interfere with the Hindu social customs. Political cause: Nana sahib was refused pension as he was the adopted son of Peshwa Baji Rao II. They should be viewed together. The Indian Rebellion of 1857 was a major, but ultimately unsuccessful, uprising in India in 1857–58 against the rule of the British East India Company, which functioned as a sovereign power on behalf of the British Crown. What was the character of the Revolt of 1857? The unhappiness of the sepoys first surfaced in 1824 when the 47th Regiment at Barrackpur was ordered to go to Burma. Shift from traders to Lords As per some British historians, it was just a peasant sepoy mutiny. Dr S.N. The revolt of 1857 witnessed in large parts of North and Central India was an armed rebellion triggered due to number of political and economic policies of British. While discontent against the British rule was growing among the different section of the populations, the Indian sepoys in the British army were getting restless. In that year there were a series of uprising which were known by British historians as ‘the Indian mutiny’ and by Indian historians as ‘The War of Independence’ these different names for the same event show how history can be a matter of interpretation. To the orthodox people, those reforms were unwanted. All the articles you read in this site are contributed by users like you, with a single vision to liberate knowledge. Huge numbers of Indians were thrown out of employment. Fourthly, the British Government interfered with the religious beliefs of the sepoys. For which he started to use doctrine of lapse. The Revolt Of 1857. “The Revolt of 1857” Amit Mishra Class – 8th (B) Roll No. One consequence of the mutiny was the establishment of direct British governance of India. Further more, he preached in favour of cosmopolitanism and Catholicism. The Government permitted the missionaries to come for England without any restriction. The Indian Sepoy were underpaid whereas their European counterpart were not. SUBMITED TO Some notable persons of those houses worked secretly against the foreigners. Dr. R.C. Many states were annexed under this Doctrine. It began with a mutiny of sepoys (who were the Indian soldiers of the Company’s army). When the British conquered a kingdom, the ministers, courtiers, officers and soldiers of that state lost their jobs. The British East India Company had recently introduced the Enfield rifle; the cartridge of the new rifle had to be bitten off before loading and the grease was reportedly made of beef and pig fat. What was the immediate cause of the Revolt of 1857? This essay will analyse all these causes in a more detailed way (From lectures, What Are The Four Major Developmental Theories, Literature Review: Layout And Ambiance Of A Department Store, What Are The Four Major Theories Of Development. “Our religion is in the Kitchen. A group of historians and writers has asserted that the Revolt was the result of a widespread and well-organized conspiracy. Indians as a nation suffered from inferiority complex. PreserveArticles.com: Preserving Your Articles for Eternity. (ii) The people of India did not like the activites of Christian missionaries. Sixthly, from some unknown source, there spread belief among the Indian sepoys that the British rule was coming in close. Write a short note on the Revolt of 1857 in India. However, the uprising spread very quickly all over the northern and central regions of India and soon the rebellion by the civilian population started in a significant number of military towns of India such as Allahabad, Cawnpore, Delhi, Lucknow, Meerut, Peshawar and many other towns. The causes of the Great Revolt of 1857 and Sepoy Mutiny may be studied in the following heads: Political cause: Major political cause for the outbreak of the Revolt … Causes of the Revolt of 1857. But it was not simply a revolt of sepoys. Liberal reformist thought that only Western education would bring the “barbarous” nation to the modern level. This ‘Discrimination’ was a major underlying cause of the rebellion of 1857. As the sepoy army raised the banner of revolt, the princes and the people joined their hands with them. Their manner and behavior greatly displeased the orthodox people. Their judicial system were also costly for the Indians in that time. The sepoys were the defenders of the Empire. Indian Mutiny, widespread but unsuccessful rebellion begun in 1857 against British rule in India. From power and position, they fell to ordinary condition. The number of the Indian sepoys in that year was 2, 33,000. The causes from the Muslims were that they started to think that if they would not push them out of India, their. However, there were also many other causes that in sum resulted in the Rebellion of 1857. However, in sum total the ‘organizational’ factor was the principal cause of the deep British-Indian divide which led to the events which erupted like a volcano in 1857. Our mission is to liberate knowledge. The seed of communal discord planted by the English in India sprouted … Under the doctrine of lapse, the British annexed any Indian state where the ruler did not have a male heir. His approach was radical. Various causes were responsible for the Revolt of 1857. The immediate cause of the revolt was the introduction of the new Enfield rifle and the greased cartridge. 4. Before publishing your Article on this site, please read the following pages: 1. But, for several reasons the sepoys become disloyal and angry. From the battle of Palessay in 1757, to the revolt 1857, it was a full century. They had no self respect. A brief account of those causes given below: Since the Battle of Plassey, the English conquered territory after territory to extend their Empire. SHREYA MENON Apart from these reasons some others … Interests of the peasantry, craftsmen and some of the Indian feudal lords were infringed. Therefore he proclaimed: “I would rather see every one of you rank atheists than superstitious fools: for the atheist is alive, and you can make something of him. At places, they criticized other religions in order to establish the greatness of their own to the orthodox people, the missionary activities appeared very dangerous. Given below are the chief causes of the 1857 War of Independence : The Causes Of The Rebellion. That in a sense became the social cause of the revolt. It began when Indian troops (sepoys) in the service of Britain’s East India Company refused to use purportedly tainted weaponry. In addition, there were also two important Governor Generals of India whose policies accelerated the growing nationalism among the Indian people and resulted in the Great Uprising. The poor peasants also did not gain any economic benefit from the British rule. yet much less than a first war of Independence. This hurt all sections of society. which angered the local ruler, who had to now live i… Land settlements did not satisfy them. Vivekananda taught many things to his countrymen. Not only shall I do these, but I shall keep may be heart open for all that may come in the future”. Introduction A) Heavy taxation B) But down on major patronage for artisans and handicrafts C) increasing availability of market for Indian cotton. It was believed that the grease was made out of the fats of cows and pigs. This displayed a new, never seen before unity among the people against the British rule, outcomes. CAUSES OF REVOLT. What were few political and military factors responsible for the Revolt of 1857? So they wanted freedom from the British rule. Those small officers among the sepoys, who became popular with their man, were suspected by the British army officers and removed from services. Thus, the territorial greed of the British and the reaction of the Indian princes against that aggression was the political cause of the Revolt of 1857. It started as the uprising of the soldiers of the Bengal Presidency Army that aimed to expel the British rule from the territory of India. Divide and Rule (Partition of Bengal) Also Read: Causes of the Revolt of 1857. The English at the large Presidency towns began to systematic their efforts for the emancipations of the female from the utter ignorance, which had been its birthright, and the wives and the daughters of the white men began to aid in the work, cheered and encouraged by the symphathesis of their sisters at home. Believe it or not, it was the ‘Enfield Rifle’. John William Kaye, the historian of the Sepoy War, regarded Dalhousie’s encouragement of female education as one of the causes of the Mutiny. His aggressive attitude towards the old and famous royal houses led to serious political discontent among the princes and the people alike. In fact, suspicion of the sepoys was true. Dalhousie had even desire to drive out the Mughal Emperor Bahadur Shah II from Delhi in order to extinguish the Mughal dynasty. Avadh was annexed in 1856, on charge of mal-administration. The rulers of India fell one by one before the might of the Western arms. Socio-Religious Causes of 1857 Revolt Not a shilling was spent from the British treasury on the defense of the India. Since the greased cartridge contained the animal fat, as the name suggested, the fat came from all types of animals, cows and pigs included. Write an article on the early career of Mahatma Gandhi, Controlling in Management # Meaning, Definition, Types, Process, Steps and Techniques. The Revolt of 1857 further widened the difference between the ruler and the ruled. The immediate cause of the Indian Revolt of 1857, or Sepoy Mutiny, was a seemingly minor change in the weapons used by the British East India Company's troops.The Company had upgraded to the new Pattern 1853 Enfield rifle, which used greased paper cartridges. The Britishers, who were the rulers of the then India, did not care for its development. In a number of European countries, he propounded the greatness of Hindu civilization. The policy of the British Government was to exploit the wealth of India. When the British army could not show meritorious performance in the Crimean War, the Indian sepoys lost regard for them as good fighters. The increasing activities of the Christian missionaries and the actual conversions made by them were taken as a proof of this fear. The enemies of the English spread rumors that in order to destroy religion of the Hindus the British mixed the powder of the animal bones in the salt. Civil Disobedience Movement 5. His doctrine of Lapse was a calculated step to annihilate as many native rulers as possible. Their Crime -These troopers had refused to load their rifles with the new cartridges. 1. The cumulative effect of British expansionist policies, economic exploitation and administrative innovations over the years had adversely affected the positions of all rulers of Indian states, sepoys, zamindars, peasants, traders, artisans, pundits, maulvis, etc. A social discontent began to grow. The poverty of the people gradually increased. 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