Jorge Lalucat, Representative strains of all groups were detected in the Mazandaran region, groups II, III, IV, VII, VIII and X were not detected in the Gilan region and groups II, V, VII and XI were not detected in the Golestan region; groups I, VI and IX were present in all 3 regions. Strains used in this study and their assignation to phenotypic clusters and phylogenetic groups in the, Pathogenicity tests and disease severity comparison for all. Motile
Symptoms of the disease, initially water-soaked lesions turning to brown to black necrotic areas, most commonly begin on young leaves and twigs. Some authors have also included the pectinolytic species P. viridiflava and the oxidase-positive species P. cichorii within this group . Its
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The results of the biochemical and physiological tests based on API 20 NE strips and Biolog GN2 microplates are given in S3 Table. Competing interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist. 2. phospholipids of the brain and myelin sheath. The strains were initially grouped phenotypically and by their partial rpoD gene sequences into 11 coherent groups in the Pseudomonas fluorescens phylogenetic lineage.
However, it is capable of breaking down some plant-derived carbohydrates, fatty acids, and oils and can hydrolyze proteins causing the spoilage of milk, meat, and fish. Citrus blast is one of the most important citrus diseases in the northern citrus growing provinces of Iran, which represents 60% of the total citrus growing area in Iran (approximately 100,000 ha). The organisms in the genus Pseudomonas
PLOS ONE promises fair, rigorous peer review, A. Pathogenicity test in Sour Orange citrus leaves for each group of strains. The most dangerous group is Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a leading cause of concern as the source of many antibiotic-resistant infections. with
No exact crop loss data are available. Whiskers (error bars) above and below the box indicate the 90th and 10th percentiles. Conceived and designed the experiments: FB HR MG AB JL EGV.
We demonstrated, for the first time, that the P. lurida, P. orientalis and P. simiae strains are pathogenic to plants. It does not produce hyperchloremic acidosis and is less readily
After 2 min centrifugation at 16.000 x g, the supernatant was recovered. These eight strains were located in two independent branches; one branch had three isolates that were close to P. syringae and P. congelans, and there were five strains in the other independent branch. Pseudomonas fluorescens is not generally considered a bacterial pathogen in humans; however, multiple culture-based and culture-independent studies have identified it at low levels in the indigenous microbiota of various body sites. The length and nucleotide positions are in reference to P. aeruginosa type strain DSM 50071T: the 16S rRNA gene (X06684) nucleotide positions from 98 to 1372; the gyrB gene (AB039386) nucleotide positions from 326 to 1122; and the rpoD gene (AB039607) nucleotide positions from 94 to 743. The Pseudomonas fluorescens group are nonpathogenic saprophytes that also produce a pigment, particul… Pseudomonas is a clinically significant and opportunistic pathogen, often causing nosocomial infections. being made to employ immunotherapy. Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources University Sari, MÄzandarÄn, Iran, Department of Plant Protection, Sari Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources University, P.O. Pyocyanin - water soluble
In general, the occurrence of disease symptoms is influenced by several factors, such as temperature, humidity, oxygen depletion, varietal susceptibility and the virulence of the bacterial strains. Phenotypic clustering of the studied strains.
4. Copyright: Â© 2016 Beiki et al. In the majority of cases (84%), the Alemow cultivar was less resistant than the other two cultivars tested (S3 Table). The combined results showed a high diversity among Pseudomonas strains pathogenic to citrus in Iran. atrofaciens, 3 strains; pv. Discover a faster, simpler path to publishing in a high-quality journal. 77,87 Transmission of bacterial infection through RBCs is less common than through platelets, because RBCs are stored at … 2.  and Berge et al. strains of P.
3. Pseudomonas fluorescens SBW25, PFLU0767 (ribF) Cytoplasmic Cytoplasmic Membrane Periplasmic Outer Membrane Extracellular Unknown View in JBrowse View in GBrowse . NAME: Pseudomonasspp. e0148796. which
reduced pulmonary function. Suspensions in SDW were stored at room temperature. Several strains were assigned to species that have not been described as plant pathogens and have been isolated previously from diverse habitats. capable of causing human disease) No = 0, Yes = 1: Plant pathogen: Does the species causes disease in plants?
one of the pyogenic bacteria. Bacterial suspensions were adjusted to an optical density of 0.2 at 620 nm, corresponding to approximately 1 Ã 108 CFU/ml, as determined by dilution plating. They are non-spore forming and can produce pigments, such as pyocyanine (green-blue) and pyorubrin (yellow-green) fluorescence Footnote 1, Foot… Other plants were not tested for susceptibility. The closest type strain to the isolates of Group XI was P. japonica, although this strain exhibited a low level of similarity (91.9%). Hits to this gene were found in 406 genera Orthologs/Comparative Genomics. 3. blocking DNA gyrase. The highest median severity, measured in mm2 of the lesion, was found among strains in group VII of the P. syringae phylogenetic group. Both active and
P. chlororaphis group P. aurantiaca P. aureofaciens P. chlororaphis P. fragi P. lundensis P. taetrolens P. fluorescens group P. antarctica P. azotoformans P. blatchfordae P. brassicacearum P. brenneri P. cedrina P. corrugata P. fluorescens P. gessardii P. libanensis P. mandelii P. marginalis P. mediterranea P. meridiana P. migulae P. mucidolens P. orientalis P. panacis P. proteolytica P. rhodesiae P. synxantha P. thivervalensis P. tolaasii P. veronii P. pertucinogena group P. denitrificans P. pe 1. Assignation to pathovars of strains identified as members of the. this type of
glanders (transmitted from horse to man), nodular, necrotic involvement
BOX 578, Mazandaran, SaSari, Iran, Affiliations: Forty-one of the isolates were tested and produced disease symptoms under natural field conditions with a monthly average temperature of 21Â°C. In Pseudomonas fluroescens Pf-5, enzymes that degrade plant cell walls and their components such as cellulase, pectinase, or pectin lyase are not present. A total of 2.5 Î¼l of each primer was used at a concentration of 10 Î¼M, with 5 U of Taq DNA polymerase (EG Healthcare), in a total volume of 50 Î¼l. These provinces are geographically divided into two parts: the coastal plains and the mountainous areas. Single colonies were cultured on NA containing 1% sucrose (NAS), and after two days of growth, the plates were maintained at 4â6Â°C for short-term storage and routine use. The 21 Pseudomonas species described by Bull and collaborators  belong mainly to the P. syringae phylogenetic group (14 species), with 5 species associated with the P. fluorescens subgroup and 2 species associated with the P. corrugata subgroup. severely limits the uptake of antibiotics.
Wrote the paper: FB AB MG HR JL EGV. The individual and concatenated partial sequences of the three genes were used to construct the corresponding phylogenetic trees. Pathogenic Significance of Pseudomonas Fluorescens and Pseudomonas Putida. 6. The remaining isolates in the P. fluorescens phylogenetic subgroup clustered as follows: 7 strains of phenotypic cluster III were close to P. simiae; 5 strains of phenotypic cluster IV were close to P. lurida, 13 strains of phenotypic cluster V were close to P. rhodesiae; 11 strains of phenotypic cluster IX were close to P. koreensis and P. moraviensis; 10 strains of phenotypic cluster II formed an independent branch in the P. fluorescens phylogenetic subgroup, close to P. libanensis, P. synxantha and P. veronii. Department of Biology-Microbiology, Universitat de les Illes Balears, Palma de Mallorca, Crtra. and composition of cytoplasmic membrane.
Phylogenetic analyses based on the concatenated sequences (2,818 nt) of the 16S rRNA (1,296 nt), gyrB (805 nt) and rpoD genes (717 nt) confirmed the distribution of the isolates in the 11 phylogenetic and phenotypic groupings (Figs 2, 3 and 4). Three different citrus cultivars were used in the pathogenicity tests: Alemow (Citrus macrophylla, the most sensitive cultivar in an extensive natural infection in 1998 in northern Iran) and the two most abundant cultivars in the region, Washington navel (Citrus sinensis) and Sour Orange (Citrus aurantium). There are two problems associated with
The remaining 47 strains that could not be identified at the species level are considered representatives of at least 5 putative novel Pseudomonas species that are not yet described. Although there are over 200 species of Pseudomonas only three are known to be pathogenic for man: P. aeruginosa - sputum of patients with cystic fibrosis, burns, urinary tract infections. Expansion of the lesions often leads to girdling of the affected branch and withering of the portions distal to the lesion . Three isolates of phenotypic cluster VII were close to the P. viridiflava type strain. the most part they are found wherever organic matter is decomposing. Nucleic Acids Res. These
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The symptoms were less severe under field conditions. More than 1,000 strains were isolated in an initial screening from samples of citrus leaves and twigs with blast disease symptoms collected from different regions of Iran (Gilan, Mazandaran and Golestan provinces). P.
Some pseudomonal species that previously were considered the causative agents of old diseases now are being reexamined for their potential use as biological warfare agents. Immunotherapy - an experimental
Immunocompromised patients with a high exposure to agricultural products may be at increased risk for systemic infection by Pseudomonas fluorescens.
We evaluated the effects of gamma radiation (0.5 kGy), nisin-based sanitizer (100%), and competitive biocontrol microbes (non-pathogenic Pseudomonas fluorescens) on the survival of Listeria monocytogen ... DOI: 10.1016/j.lwt.2019.108805 The collection of 126 Pseudomonas strains has been identified and characterized taxonomically by extensive numerical analyses of phenotypic features and by a multilocus sequencing approach, which includes analyses of partial sequences of the 16S rRNA, gyrB and rpoD genes. All pathogenicity tests were conducted at least twice. Distribution per geographical region of the 11 groups of strains in this study. Fluorescein - a water
Members of the two remaining groups (X and XI) belonged to the P. putida phylogenetic group. cell lysis. are gram- bacteria which morphologically resemble enteric bacilli
The MLSA groups (Fig 5) were congruent with the groups in the rpoD analysis. They favor moist areas and are widely found in soil and water. Compound is toxic. causes melioidosis, a glanders-like disease with clinical manifestations
Elena GarcÃa-ValdÃ©s, Affiliation: by peritrichous flagella. Collagenase - an enzyme
Pathogenic Significance of Pseudomonas Fluorescens and Pseudomonas Putida Clipboard, Search History, and several other advanced features are temporarily unavailable. Overview; ... Found in both pathogen and nonpathogenic strains. b.
A similarity matrix was generated using a simple matching coefficient, and the results are depicted in a dendrogram constructed by the UPGMA algorithm. 3. papulans, 11 strains; and pv. Phenotypic characterization and pathogenicity tests of the strains included in this study. Sequencing reactions were performed using ABI Prism BigDye Terminator version 3.1, and the sequences were read with an automatic sequence analyzer (3130 genetic analyzer; Applied Biosystems). The segment was cut into small pieces in drops of SDW, left for 10â20 min in a sterile laminar air flow cabinet and drops of the suspension were streaked on plates of nutrient agar (NA) medium (Merck, Germany). water and resistant to enzyme attack because of its three-dimensional configuration. Tobramycin (an amino glycoside)-like many of the amino glycosides this
Pseudomonas infections are an important cause of morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised patients. P. syringae is the first species in the Top 10 plant pathogenic bacteria . It has also
Resistance of organisms to this
All isolates were identified initially as P. syringae and P. viridiflava by the reactions in the LOPAT tests. The phytopathogenic, oxidase-negative fluorescent Pseudomonas species have been traditionally identified as either P. syringae or P. viridiflava. Disease severity comparison of Pseudomonas strains of each group tested in three plant genotypes, measured by the lesion area expressed in mm2 two weeks after inoculation. A similarity matrix was generated using the Simple Matching Coefficient, and a dendrogram was constructed using the unweighted pair group method with arithmetic averages (UPGMA). action is
The field studies did not involve endangered or protected species. (2016) doi: 10.1093/nar/gkv1227 (Database issue). Six applications of a mixed PGPRs culture (Pseudomonas fluorescens Pf-01 and P. chlororaphis CECT 462) on the productivity of sugar beet were performed.Three different treatments, with four replicates in a completely randomized block design, … Fluorescent pigment production was tested on King B medium (Merck, Germany) . Fluorescein formation
Iranian Research Institute of Plant Protection, Agricultural Research Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Tehran, Iran, Affiliation: It acts by
The plant pathogenic Pseudomonas species that belong to the Pseudomonas syringae species complex include P. cannabina, P. avellanae, P. amygdali, P. ficuserectae, P. savastanoi, P. tremae, P. meliae, P. caricapapayae and P. syringae [(ISPP Taxonomy of Plant Pathogenic Bacteria Committee; http://www.isppweb.org/names_bacterial.asp); ]. http://www.isppweb.org/names_bacterial.asp.
Forty-six isolates belonged to phenotypic cluster VI in the P. syringae species complex. An analysis of three concatenated genes (16S rRNA, gyrB, rpoD; 2,818 nucleotides in total) was performed as described by Mulet et al. Strains in groups II (10 strains), V (13 strains), VII (1 strain), VIII (5 strains), IX (10 strains), X (4 strains) and XI (4 strains), which represented 37% of the isolates, could not be assigned to a known species and are considered representatives of at least 5 putative novel Pseudomonas species because each group is phylogenetically and phenotypically homogeneous and distinct from known species type strains. They are strict aerobes. One hundred twenty-six Pseudomonas strains were isolated from diseased citrus leaves and stems. on topical
It is rapidly
Gram-negative bacteria, including Yersinia enterocolitica, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Serratia marcescens, and Serratia liquefaciens, accounted for most of the reported cases of transfusion-transmitted infection caused by contaminated RBCs historically (Table 306-3). coli infection. The scale bar represents the number of substitutions per site. Quantum yield of photosystem II (ΦPSII) for 12-weeks-old sugar beet plants (2 days after the third PGPRs inoculation, 03 July 2018). The robustness of the concatenated tree was demonstrated by the high bootstrap values at all branches. Both species groups are monophyletic in the rpoD geneâs phylogenetic tree and in multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) and are considered members of the P. syringae phylogenetic group as defined by Mulet and collaborators . It has two modes of action, blockage of folic
Ciprofloxacin (a quinolone) - this is the most potent of the quinolones. Fifty-three strains that are representatives of the 11 groups were selected and analyzed by partial sequencing of their 16S rRNA and gyrB genes. dysoxyli, 16 strains; pv. Damage is mainly caused by the prevailing climatic conditions in this area of the Caspian Sea belt [6, 7, 8]. This plot provided summary statistics for five values: the minimum, the maximum, the median, the 25th percentile, and the 75th percentile. Pseudomonas putida and Pseudomonas fluorescens were used in this study as they exhibit properties similar to those of P. … Debride the wound, wash
Some P. fluorescens strains (CHA0 or Pf-5, for example) present biocontrol properties, protecting the roots of some plant species against parasitic fungi such as Fusarium or the oomycete Pythium, as well as some phytophagous nematodes. Pseudomonas bacteria are generally aerobic rod-shaped bacteria that are known for their metabolic diversity (DOE Joint Genome Institute). giving an alkaline urine. Blast is a disease of the leaves and twigs, and black pit is a disease of the fruit. The number shown next to each node indicates the percentage bootstrap values of 1000 replicates. Some of these
numbers, as is normal, the synthesis and release of toxins is insignificant.
The reaction of the isolates in the LOPAT tests and the utilization of selected carbon compounds were determined to verify the identity of the isolates recovered compared with the inoculum, proving Koch postulates. 1. eyedrops, weak antiseptic solution, soaps, anesthesia and
Rugged and opportunistic, Pseudomonas use a wide range of nutritional sources, even very simple nutritional environments without any organic compounds. For long storage periods, the cells were maintained in 25% glycerol at -70Â°C. The sequence analysis procedures were performed as previously described by Mulet and collaborators . It is
Gentamicin - an aminoglycoside antibiotic consisting of three closely related
sinks, fuels, humidifiers and even stored distilled water. The results of the present study showed that citrus blast disease in the northern citrus producing provinces is caused by a diverse population of Pseudomonas strains belonging to species and pathovars including the two universally known species P. syringae pv. Lecithinase - an enzyme
infections. One hundred and forty strains were positive in the pathogenicity tests conducted, and the strains that were phenotypically related to Pseudomonas strains (126) were included in the present study. Pyocyanin formation -
As depicted in Fig 4 and Table 2, the majority of the strains in our study were closely affiliated in the rpoD sequence with strains of known pathovars of P. syringae (pv. PLoS ONE 11(2): Individual trees were generated for the 16S rRNA, gyrB, and rpoD partial gene alignments. Traditionally, these pathogens have been differentiated from other Pseudomonas species according to their colony morphology, ability to induce a hypersensitivity response in non-host plants, and the presence or absence of pectinase and arginine dihydrolase . ++, strongly positive; +, positive; w+, weakly positive; -, negative; ND, not determined. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0148796, Editor: Boris Alexander Vinatzer, Virginia Tech, UNITED STATES, Received: October 3, 2015; Accepted: January 21, 2016; Published: February 26, 2016. Farid Beiki, Overview ... Found in both pathogen and nonpathogenic strains. Pseudomonas fluorescens is an aerobic, gram-negative, ubiquitous organism present in agricultural soils and well adapted to grow in the rhizosphere. Pseudomonas infections are caused by a free-living bacterium from the genus Pseudomonas. The Alborz Mountain Range surrounds the coastal strip and plains of the Caspian Sea like a huge barrier. Leaf lesions extend through the petiole to the stem and expand in both directions. Farmers use bactericidal compounds to control the disease (e.g., copper oxychloride); however, this practice could cause serious damage to the environment and human health and also promotes the selection of pathogenic strains with increased tolerance to copper [9, 10]. Pus formation - this is
The major clinical features used in diagnosis are: 1. The cycling conditions for the rpoD (PsEG30F/PsEG790R) , 16S rRNA (16F27/16R1492)  and gyrB (BAUP2/APrU) genes  included a denaturation period at 94Â°C for 5 min, followed by 30 cycles of amplification (denaturation at 94Â°C for 1 min, primer annealing at 55Â°C (48Â°C for rpoD) for 1 min, and primer extension at 72Â°C for 1.5 min). LOPAT tests were performed as previously described: levan production , oxidase test , potato rot symptoms , arginine dihydrolase test and tobacco hypersensitivity reaction .
of organic compounds, e.g.,
biosynthesis and silver denaturation of various proteins. P. syringae and P. viridiflava, which cause citrus blast and black pit disease, are pathogenic species to citrus plants. The isolates of Group IX are related to the two species of the P. koreensis subgroup, P. koreensis (96.7% similarity) and P. moraviensis (96.8% similarity). To determine the phylogenetic affiliation of the rpoD gene groupings in the genus Pseudomonas, 53 strains were selected as representatives of the 11 rpoD gene groupings for a multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) according to the following criterion: at least 2 strains per rpoD phylogenetic group were selected to have representative strains of each phylogroup and to assess the phylogenetic diversity within each group. toxins are: 1. multiply in almost any moist environment containing even trace amounts
ribosome and causing misreading of mRNA. There was no correlation between cultivars and groups. Some isolates were affiliated with species from the P. putida phylogenetic group; 6 strains of phenotypic cluster X were placed close to P. monteilii, and 4 strains of phenotypic cluster XI were close to P. japonica.
P. pseudomallei -
The black dots indicate outlier values. The severity of the lesions induced by the strains assigned to species not yet described as pathogenic and the putative novel species were of a similar order of magnitude as the P. syringae and P. viridiflava isolates. S3 Table. Typically, Pseudomonas fluorescens is non-pathogenic, meaning it does not cause disease in humans. mucous membranes of nasal
Chemotherapy - this is
Some bacterial species are able to form biofilms which protect them from environmental conditions. S1 Fig.
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